Top Ten Inventions Of 2013 : Great Stuff

Exploding microorganism

Exploding microorganism

Scientists operating within the field of artificial biology have thought up a brand new thanks to cure diseases… except by “thought up” I mean they’ve been looking archangel Bay’s Transformers movies and seeing however everything explodes.

The scientists have created associate degree Escherichia coli cell that – upon contact with bound pathogens – virtually explodes, killing each the infectious agent and itself.

You detected me: scientists have thought of the way to cure you with explosions. Speaking of wacky cures…
Exploding Bacteria

Glow-in-the-Dark Dogs

Glowing Dog

“A dog is man’s best friend” – whoever same that was lying, as a result of we tend to all grasp a man’s supporter is his secret stash of glow within the dark toys. Scientists in Asian country have combined each in an endeavor to assist fight Alzheimer's and Parkinsons by engineering a dog with genes that produces it glow within the dark.

That’s right, glow within the dark dogs were engineered by scientists, and currently exist on this Earth.
Glowing Dog
Anti-Malaria Mosquitoes


After having a sip from the irony cup, U.S. scientists have set that the simplest thanks to cure protozoal infection and dengue is with mosquitoes.

By genetically modifying mosquitos that live longer and area unit naturally proof against protozoal infection, scientists hope to prevent its unfold and eventually eradicate it. Science conquers all.Mosquito
Bomb-Detecting Plants

Color ever-changing Plants

Scientists, once becoming bored with things like bees and mice, are attempting to change plants in order that they'll look for bombs.

Dr. Jane Medford is developing plants that may flip white once exposed to explosive and environmental pollutants. and that they same Poison English ivy was too kafkaesque for the Dark Knight series…Color Changing Plants
Silk Worms With Spider Silk

A Silkworm

Scientists, World Health Organization apparently don’t watch B-grade horror movies, have set that merging silkworm genes with spider genes may be a smart plan.

On the one hand you’ve got spider silk, one among the world’s strongest biological materials, with a strength larger than steel. On the opposite hand, silkworms area unit mass-producing silk-making machines. thus researchers – deciding we'd like additional bullet proof vests created out of sticky insect sludge – set to form the superb SpiderwormA Silkworm
5:Artificial Jellyfish From Rat Cells

Artificial Jellyfish

Not happy by just turning alternative animals into glow-in-the-dark dolls, scientists have used rat cells and silicone polymer to make a synthetic jellyfish. Dubbed the ‘medusoid’ – tho' lacking the power to show individuals into stone – it swims and behaves similar to a true jelly fish once placed in an electrical field.

The jellyfish was designed by Harvard physicist Kit Parker, World Health Organization is currently planing to make alternative life forms. If he’s open for suggestions, I’d wish to vote for Sharktopus.
Artificial Jellyfish
Synthetic psychic communication

Charles missionary

Seeing as it’s unbelievably onerous to know what individuals say typically, science has stepped in to grant U.S. one among life’s most requested superpowers – psychic communication.

The military is developing an artificial device which might browse electrical activity in a very person’s brain, add up of all the thoughts, so send it to alternative troopers as voicemail or text messages – in theory making a military of faculty member Charles Xaviers.Charles Xavier
Laser Guns

Ray Gun

Military scientists, once years of ignoring my email requests, have finally developed lasers able to shoot down mortars and missiles.

The optical maser weapon, or LaWS, features a longer operational vary than current naval weaponry defences and can be a vast upgrade to the yank Navy.

And just in case you think that this technology is experimental in any method, they’re hoping to mount it on ships next year. That’s right: it’s only one year till the planet has got to face floating Death Stars. only one additional year…Ray Gun
Bullet Proof Gel


Science, in its unending quest to prevent U.S. from killing ourselves, has developed a liquid gel that hardens upon impact. It is fell between sheets of Kevlar, and is light-weight and bullet proof, giving troopers extra protection. however simply just in case that fails:T1000


Scientists have discovered the way to form individuals regenerate lost components of the body – dignity and every one.

Corporal Isaias Hernandez, a soldier World Health Organization had quite seventieth of his leg blown apart in battle, came home and was told that his right leg muscle would ne'er heal, associate degreed he’d be happier with an amputation. Deciding to stay the leg, Hernandez and clinical man of science Steven Wolf tried a brand new approach – a bittie little bit of pig’s bladder.

Called the living thing matrix, or ECM, it's the ability to wake a body’s natural healing talents. By inserting the ECM into his leg – and by combining this with therapy – Hernandez regenerated the larger a part of its muscle; these days it’s as robust as his healthy leg.

Pig’s bladder is largely the key to Wolverine-like healing talents.Wolverine
Scientists have discovered a way to make people regenerate lost parts of the body – dignity and all.
Corporal Isaias Hernandez, a soldier who had more than 70% of his leg blown apart in battle, returned home and was told that his right leg muscle would never heal, and he’d be better off with an amputation. Deciding to keep the leg, Hernandez and clinical researcher Steven Wolf tried a new approach – a teeny bit of pig’s bladder.
Called the extracellular matrix, or ECM, it has the power to reawaken a body’s natural healing abilities. By inserting the ECM into his leg – and by combining this with physical therapy – Hernandez regenerated the greater part of its muscle; today it’s as strong as his healthy leg.
Pig’s bladder is basically the key to Wolverine-like healing abilities.

Question: what is a Transistor? How It Is Used? Types Of Transistors

Question: what's a Transistor?
Answer: At its core, a junction transistor is Associate in Nursing electronic part employed in a circuit to regulate an outsized quantity of current or voltage with alittle quantity of voltage or current.

It will therefore by sandwiching one semiconductor between 2 alternative semiconductors. as a result of the present is transferred across a cloth that commonly has high resistance (i.e. a resistor), it absolutely was a "transfer-resistor" or junction transistor.

The first sensible point-contact junction transistor was in-built 1948 by pressman physicist, physicist, and conductor House Brattain. Patents for the conception of a junction transistor date as way back as 1928 in FRG, although they appear to possess ne'er been designed, or a minimum of nobody ever claimed to possess designed them.
Basic Point-Contact junction transistor Structure
There ar basically 2 basic sorts of point-contact transistors, the npn {transistor|junction junction transistor|electronic transistor|semiconductor device|semiconductor unit|semiconductor} and also the pnp transistor, wherever the n and p signify negative and positive, severally. the sole distinction between the 2 is that the arrangement of bias voltages.

To understand however a junction transistor works, you have got to know however semiconductors react to an electrical potential. Some semiconductors are going to be n-type, or negative, which implies that free electrons within the material drift from a negative conductor (of, say, A battery it's connected to) toward the positive. alternative semiconductors are going to be p-type, within which case the negatrons fill "holes" within the atomic electron shells, which means that it behaves as if a positive particle is moving from the positive conductor to the negative conductor. the kind is decided by the atomic structure of the particular semiconductor material.

Now, think about a npn junction transistor. every finish of the junction transistor is Associate in Nursing semiconductor material Associate in Nursingd between them is an semiconductor unit material. If you image such a tool obstructed into A battery, you will see however the junction transistor works:

    the n-type region hooked up to the negative finish of the battery helps propel electrons into the center p-type region.
    the n-type region hooked up to the positive finish of the battery helps slow electrons taking off of the p-type region.
    the p-type region within the center will each.

By variable the potential in every region, then, you'll drastically have an effect on the speed of negatron flow across the junction transistor.
Benefits of Transistors
Compared to the vacuum tubes that were used antecedently, the junction transistor was an incredible advance. Smaller in size, the junction transistor may simply be factory-made cheaply in massive quantitites. that they had numerous operational blessings, as well, that ar too various to say here.

Some think about the junction transistor to be the best single invention of the twentieth century, since it opened most within the manner of alternative electronic advancements. nearly each trendy device incorporates a junction transistor joined of its primary active parts. the pc, all told of its trendy forms, couldn't exist while not transistors.
Other sorts of Transistors
There ar a large kind of junction transistor varieties that are developed since 1948, and an outline of all of them would need extra space and technical experience than is I even have. Here's an inventory (not essentially exhaustive) of assorted sorts of transistors:

    Bipolar electronic transistor (BJT)
 junction transistor (FET)
    Heterojunction bipolar junction transistor
    Unijunction junction transistor
    Dual-gate FET
    Avalanche junction transistor
    Thin-film junction transistor
    Darlington junction transistor
 trajectory junction transistor
    Floating gate junction transistor
    Inverted-T result junction transistor
    Spin junction transistor
 pic junction transistor
    Insulated gate bipolar junction transistor
    Single-electron junction transistor
    Nanofluidic junction transistor
    Trigate junction transistor (Intel prototype)
    Ion-sensitive FET
    Fast-reverse epitaxal diode FET (FREDFET)
    Electrolyte-Oxide-Semiconductor FET (EOSFET)

Succesful Resume Formats/curriculum vitae For Freshers 2014

                                    Your first impression is your last impression; you don't have a second chance. Invest time in your resume to write it well. Your resume can make you stand above the crowd if written well and organized properly. Your resume should represent your best abilities truthfully. A resume - sometimes called a curriculum vitae or CV - is a summary of your education, training, work experience and skills. A good resume demonstrates how your skills and abilities match up with the requirements of a job. Employers do not have the luxury to spend more than a minute of their time reading your resume. It must be eye-catching, short and brief. The purpose of your resume is to get you in the door. Your interview gets you further ahead in getting the job you desire. Your resume should reflect what your capabilities are and what you can do.

Some guidelines in writing a professional resume:

  • Keep your objective brief, to the point and in line with your education and experience. Never overstate your qualifications, skills or lie on your resume. This will make your job search more efficient and help recruiters find you.
  • You should prioritize your accomplishments and skills on your resume according to impressiveness, individuality and significance to the prospective position. Don't bury the skill or job experience that would be most likely to impress a recruiter. Resumes are scanned quickly, so a recruiter may move on to the next resume if you lead with an unrelated skill.
  • Do not over write your resume with out of place big words and endless text; leave spaces and lines between each section.
  • You should use bulleted sentences, not paragraphs, to describe your work experience in your resume. The bulleted sentences in your resume should also begin with action words, such as "developed," "initiated," or "managed." Action words add strength to your resume.
  • Stay focused in your field. Summarize your qualifications and experience related to your field, do not list odd jobs, training's and courses.
  • Be sure to proof read your resume before submitting it to a potential employer. Ask a friend or colleague look over your resume and give you their opinion on its structure or style.
  • Avoid mentioning hobbies and interests when writing your resume. Hobbies and interests often aren't relevant to the position you're applying for. Concentrate on describing your key experience and skills.
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Branch current method Step by Step Procedure/Explanation

Branch Current Method. In this method, we assume directions of currents in a network, then write equations describing their relationships to each other through Kirchhoff's and Ohm's Laws. Once we have one equation for every unknown current, we can solve the simultaneous equations and determine all currents, and therefore all voltage drops in the network.
The first and most straightforward network analysis technique is called the
Let's use this circuit to illustrate the method:

The first step is to choose a node (junction of wires) in the circuit to use as a point of reference for our unknown currents. I'll choose the node joining the right of R1, the top of R2, and the left of R3.

At this node, guess which directions the three wires' currents take, labeling the three currents as I1, I2, and I3, respectively. Bear in mind that these directions of current are speculative at this point. Fortunately, if it turns out that any of our guesses were wrong, we will know when we mathematically solve for the currents (any “wrong” current directions will show up as negative numbers in our solution).

Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL) tells us that the algebraic sum of currents entering and exiting a node must equal zero, so we can relate these three currents (I1, I2, and I3) to each other in a single equation. For the sake of convention, I'll denote any current entering the node as positive in sign, and any current exiting the node as negative in sign:

The next step is to label all voltage drop polarities across resistors according to the assumed directions of the currents. Remember that the “upstream” end of a resistor will always be negative, and the “downstream” end of a resistor positive with respect to each other, since electrons are negatively charged:

The battery polarities, of course, remain as they were according to their symbology (short end negative, long end positive). It is OK if the polarity of a resistor's voltage drop doesn't match with the polarity of the nearest battery, so long as the resistor voltage polarity is correctly based on the assumed direction of current through it. In some cases we may discover that current will be forced backwards through a battery, causing this very effect. The important thing to remember here is to base all your resistor polarities and subsequent calculations on the directions of current(s) initially assumed. As stated earlier, if your assumption happens to be incorrect, it will be apparent once the equations have been solved (by means of a negative solution). The magnitude of the solution, however, will still be correct.
Kirchhoff's Voltage Law (KVL) tells us that the algebraic sum of all voltages in a loop must equal zero, so we can create more equations with current terms (I1, I2, and I3) for our simultaneous equations. To obtain a KVL equation, we must tally voltage drops in a loop of the circuit, as though we were measuring with a real voltmeter. I'll choose to trace the left loop of this circuit first, starting from the upper-left corner and moving counter-clockwise (the choice of starting points and directions is arbitrary). The result will look like this:

Having completed our trace of the left loop, we add these voltage indications together for a sum of zero:

Of course, we don't yet know what the voltage is across R1 or R2, so we can't insert those values into the equation as numerical figures at this point. However, we do know that all three voltages must algebraically add to zero, so the equation is true. We can go a step further and express the unknown voltages as the product of the corresponding unknown currents (I1 and I2) and their respective resistors, following Ohm's Law (E=IR), as well as eliminate the 0 term:

Since we know what the values of all the resistors are in ohms, we can just substitute those figures into the equation to simplify things a bit:

You might be wondering why we went through all the trouble of manipulating this equation from its initial form (-28 + ER2 + ER1). After all, the last two terms are still unknown, so what advantage is there to expressing them in terms of unknown voltages or as unknown currents (multiplied by resistances)? The purpose in doing this is to get the KVL equation expressed using the same unknown variables as the KCL equation, for this is a necessary requirement for any simultaneous equation solution method. To solve for three unknown currents (I1, I2, and I3), we must have three equations relating these three currents (not voltages!) together.
Applying the same steps to the right loop of the circuit (starting at the chosen node and moving counter-clockwise), we get another KVL equation:

Knowing now that the voltage across each resistor can be and should be expressed as the product of the corresponding current and the (known) resistance of each resistor, we can re-write the equation as such:

Now we have a mathematical system of three equations (one KCL equation and two KVL equations) and three unknowns:

For some methods of solution (especially any method involving a calculator), it is helpful to express each unknown term in each equation, with any constant value to the right of the equal sign, and with any “unity” terms expressed with an explicit coefficient of 1. Re-writing the equations again, we have:

Using whatever solution techniques are available to us, we should arrive at a solution for the three unknown current values:

So, I1 is 5 amps, I2 is 4 amps, and I3 is a negative 1 amp. But what does “negative” current mean? In this case, it means that our assumed direction for I3 was opposite of its real direction. Going back to our original circuit, we can re-draw the current arrow for I3 (and re-draw the polarity of R3's voltage drop to match):

Notice how current is being pushed backwards through battery 2 (electrons flowing “up”) due to the higher voltage of battery 1 (whose current is pointed “down” as it normally would)! Despite the fact that battery B2's polarity is trying to push electrons down in that branch of the circuit, electrons are being forced backwards through it due to the superior voltage of battery B1. Does this mean that the stronger battery will always “win” and the weaker battery always get current forced through it backwards? No! It actually depends on both the batteries' relative voltages and the resistor values in the circuit. The only sure way to determine what's going on is to take the time to mathematically analyze the network.
Now that we know the magnitude of all currents in this circuit, we can calculate voltage drops across all resistors with Ohm's Law (E=IR):

Let us now analyze this network using SPICE to verify our voltage figures.[spi] We could analyze current as well with SPICE, but since that requires the insertion of extra components into the circuit, and because we know that if the voltages are all the same and all the resistances are the same, the currents must all be the same, I'll opt for the less complex analysis. Here's a re-drawing of our circuit, complete with node numbers for SPICE to reference:

network analysis example   
v1 1 0  
v2 3 0 dc 7    
r1 1 2 4      
r2 2 0 2
r3 2 3 1
.dc v1 28 28 1  
.print dc v(1,2) v(2,0) v(2,3)  

v1            v(1,2)      v(2)        v(2,3)          
2.800E+01     2.000E+01   8.000E+00   1.000E+00

Sure enough, the voltage figures all turn out to be the same: 20 volts across R1 (nodes 1 and 2), 8 volts across R2 (nodes 2 and 0), and 1 volt across R3 (nodes 2 and 3). Take note of the signs of all these voltage figures: they're all positive values! SPICE bases its polarities on the order in which nodes are listed, the first node being positive and the second node negative. For example, a figure of positive (+) 20 volts between nodes 1 and 2 means that node 1 is positive with respect to node 2. If the figure had come out negative in the SPICE analysis, we would have known that our actual polarity was “backwards” (node 1 negative with respect to node 2). Checking the node orders in the SPICE listing, we can see that the polarities all match what we determined through the Branch Current method of analysis.
  • Steps to follow for the “Branch Current” method of analysis:
  • (1) Choose a node and assume directions of currents.
  • (2) Write a KCL equation relating currents at the node.
  • (3) Label resistor voltage drop polarities based on assumed currents.
  • (4) Write KVL equations for each loop of the circuit, substituting the product IR for E in each resistor term of the equations.
  • (5) Solve for unknown branch currents (simultaneous equations).
  • (6) If any solution is negative, then the assumed direction of current for that solution is wrong!
  • (7) Solve for voltage drops across all resistors (E=IR).

What is network analysis?

network analysis is any structured technique used to mathematically analyze a circuit (a “network” of interconnected components). Quite often the technician or engineer will encounter circuits containing multiple sources of power or component configurations which defy simplification by series/parallel analysis techniques. In those cases, he or she will be forced to use other means. This chapter presents a few techniques useful in analyzing such complex circuits.
Generally speaking,
To illustrate how even a simple circuit can defy analysis by breakdown into series and parallel portions, take start with this series-parallel circuit:

To analyze the above circuit, one would first find the equivalent of R2 and R3 in parallel, then add R1 in series to arrive at a total resistance. Then, taking the voltage of battery B1 with that total circuit resistance, the total current could be calculated through the use of Ohm's Law (I=E/R), then that current figure used to calculate voltage drops in the circuit. All in all, a fairly simple procedure.
However, the addition of just one more battery could change all of that:

Resistors R2 and R3 are no longer in parallel with each other, because B2 has been inserted into R3's branch of the circuit. Upon closer inspection, it appears there are no two resistors in this circuit directly in series or parallel with each other. This is the crux of our problem: in series-parallel analysis, we started off by identifying sets of resistors that were directly in series or parallel with each other, reducing them to single equivalent resistances. If there are no resistors in a simple series or parallel configuration with each other, then what can we do?
It should be clear that this seemingly simple circuit, with only three resistors, is impossible to reduce as a combination of simple series and simple parallel sections: it is something different altogether. However, this is not the only type of circuit defying series/parallel analysis:

Here we have a bridge circuit, and for the sake of example we will suppose that it is not balanced (ratio R1/R4 not equal to ratio R2/R5). If it were balanced, there would be zero current through R3, and it could be approached as a series/parallel combination circuit (R1--R4 // R2--R5). However, any current through R3 makes a series/parallel analysis impossible. R1 is not in series with R4 because there's another path for electrons to flow through R3. Neither is R2 in series with R5 for the same reason. Likewise, R1 is not in parallel with R2 because R3 is separating their bottom leads. Neither is R4 in parallel with R5. Aaarrggghhhh!
Although it might not be apparent at this point, the heart of the problem is the existence of multiple unknown quantities. At least in a series/parallel combination circuit, there was a way to find total resistance and total voltage, leaving total current as a single unknown value to calculate (and then that current was used to satisfy previously unknown variables in the reduction process until the entire circuit could be analyzed). With these problems, more than one parameter (variable) is unknown at the most basic level of circuit simplification.
With the two-battery circuit, there is no way to arrive at a value for “total resistance,” because there are two sources of power to provide voltage and current (we would need two “total” resistances in order to proceed with any Ohm's Law calculations). With the unbalanced bridge circuit, there is such a thing as total resistance across the one battery (paving the way for a calculation of total current), but that total current immediately splits up into unknown proportions at each end of the bridge, so no further Ohm's Law calculations for voltage (E=IR) can be carried out.
So what can we do when we're faced with multiple unknowns in a circuit? The answer is initially found in a mathematical process known as simultaneous equations or systems of equations, whereby multiple unknown variables are solved by relating them to each other in multiple equations. In a scenario with only one unknown (such as every Ohm's Law equation we've dealt with thus far), there only needs to be a single equation to solve for the single unknown:

However, when we're solving for multiple unknown values, we need to have the same number of equations as we have unknowns in order to reach a solution. There are several methods of solving simultaneous equations, all rather intimidating and all too complex for explanation in this chapter. However, many scientific and programmable calculators are able to solve for simultaneous unknowns, so it is recommended to use such a calculator when first learning how to analyze these circuits.
This is not as scary as it may seem at first. Trust me!
Later on we'll see that some clever people have found tricks to avoid having to use simultaneous equations on these types of circuits. We call these tricks network theorems, and we will explore a few later in this chapter.
  • Some circuit configurations (“networks”) cannot be solved by reduction according to series/parallel circuit rules, due to multiple unknown values.
  • Mathematical techniques to solve for multiple unknowns (called “simultaneous equations” or “systems”) can be applied to basic Laws of circuits to solve networks.

-Y and Y- conversions Step By Step Procedure/Explanation

In many circuit applications, we encounter components connected together in one of two ways to form a three-terminal network: the “Delta,” or Δ (also known as the “Pi,” or π) configuration, and the “Y” (also known as the “T”) configuration.

It is possible to calculate the proper values of resistors necessary to form one kind of network (Δ or Y) that behaves identically to the other kind, as analyzed from the terminal connections alone. That is, if we had two separate resistor networks, one Δ and one Y, each with its resistors hidden from view, with nothing but the three terminals (A, B, and C) exposed for testing, the resistors could be sized for the two networks so that there would be no way to electrically determine one network apart from the other. In other words, equivalent Δ and Y networks behave identically.
There are several equations used to convert one network to the other:

Δ and Y networks are seen frequently in 3-phase AC power systems (a topic covered in volume II of this book series), but even then they're usually balanced networks (all resistors equal in value) and conversion from one to the other need not involve such complex calculations. When would the average technician ever need to use these equations?
A prime application for Δ-Y conversion is in the solution of unbalanced bridge circuits, such as the one below:

Solution of this circuit with Branch Current or Mesh Current analysis is fairly involved, and neither the Millman nor Superposition Theorems are of any help, since there's only one source of power. We could use Thevenin's or Norton's Theorem, treating R3 as our load, but what fun would that be?
If we were to treat resistors R1, R2, and R3 as being connected in a Δ configuration (Rab, Rac, and Rbc, respectively) and generate an equivalent Y network to replace them, we could turn this bridge circuit into a (simpler) series/parallel combination circuit:

After the Δ-Y conversion . . .

If we perform our calculations correctly, the voltages between points A, B, and C will be the same in the converted circuit as in the original circuit, and we can transfer those values back to the original bridge configuration.

Resistors R4 and R5, of course, remain the same at 18 Ω and 12 Ω, respectively. Analyzing the circuit now as a series/parallel combination, we arrive at the following figures:

We must use the voltage drops figures from the table above to determine the voltages between points A, B, and C, seeing how the add up (or subtract, as is the case with voltage between points B and C):

Now that we know these voltages, we can transfer them to the same points A, B, and C in the original bridge circuit:

Voltage drops across R4 and R5, of course, are exactly the same as they were in the converted circuit.
At this point, we could take these voltages and determine resistor currents through the repeated use of Ohm's Law (I=E/R):

A quick simulation with SPICE will serve to verify our work

unbalanced bridge circuit   
v1 1 0  
r1 1 2 12       
r2 1 3 18       
r3 2 3 6
r4 2 0 18       
r5 3 0 12       
.dc v1 10 10 1  
.print dc v(1,2) v(1,3) v(2,3) v(2,0) v(3,0)    

v1            v(1,2)      v(1,3)      v(2,3)      v(2)        v(3)            
1.000E+01     4.706E+00   5.294E+00   5.882E-01   5.294E+00   4.706E+00

The voltage figures, as read from left to right, represent voltage drops across the five respective resistors, R1 through R5. I could have shown currents as well, but since that would have required insertion of “dummy” voltage sources in the SPICE netlist, and since we're primarily interested in validating the Δ-Y conversion equations and not Ohm's Law, this will suffice.
  • “Delta” (Δ) networks are also known as “Pi” (π) networks.
  • “Y” networks are also known as “T” networks.
  • Δ and Y networks can be converted to their equivalent counterparts with the proper resistance equations. By “equivalent,” I mean that the two networks will be electrically identical as measured from the three terminals (A, B, and C).
  • A bridge circuit can be simplified to a series/parallel circuit by converting half of it from a Δ to a Y network. After voltage drops between the original three connection points (A, B, and C) have been solved for, those voltages can be transferred back to the original bridge circuit, across those same equivalent points.
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